One hundred years ago, before Walmart and Whole Foods and Albertson's and Kroger, grocery shopping was a very different experience.
Many American city dwellers flocked to the large indoor public markets — huge, high-ceilinged halls lined with vendors hawking everything from fresh fruit and vegetables to full-service meat and fish counters.
There were, of course, the big central markets, like Eastern Market in Washington, D.C. or West Side Market in Cleveland. Seattle's Pike Place Market, now 105-years-old, is still going strong. But smaller neighborhood public markets also thrived, as did roadside stands in the summer.
Over time, though, the brightly lit suburban supermarket, with aisles of already packaged goods, emerged as a more convenient option for mid-century America's harried housewives. And in many cities, the old public markets were demolished.
But that's starting to change, as urbanites and developers keen on fresh food and a more personable shopping experience rediscover the public markets and revive them. As we've reported, farmers markets are proliferating with impressive speed, but the old indoor markets are also getting facelifts. And some cities, like Oxnard in California, are building indoor public markets from scratch.
"What you can see is that we're starting to move back to the market city model," says Brendan Crain, a spokesman for the Project for Public Spaces, which this month hosted the 8th International Public Markets Conference in Cleveland. "Supermarkets are not going away, but there's a lot more variety now."
Have a look at the slideshow for glimpse of public markets, then and now.