|| Adapt the following extensions or create
new ones! Remember, the best extension is direct experience
of Oregon's land and people.
Tribal Economy and the Making of Oregon
WRITE a fictional story or stage a play that shows how a young tribal member might have experienced one of the Indian policies enacted in Oregon, for example, being forced to go to Chemawa Indian Boarding School, the termination of tribal status, and having his or her tribal status restored.
COMPARE the historical goal of assimilating Indian people into the dominant American culture with the present goal of preserving the cultural diversity of Indian people in Oregon. What do you think/hope the goal will be in the future and why?
REFLECT on the statement that "American Indians are no longer a vanishing people." Would you agree or disagree and why?
DEVELOP a series of maps of the area defined as Oregon today, from the time prior to European settlement to the present. Include the locations of historical tribal trading sites, ancestral homelands, and current reservations. Show with icons the economic enterprises that each of the Oregon tribes are involved with today.
RESEARCH the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its role in helping or hindering the Indian tribes in Oregon.
LEARN more about the traditions of Native Americans in Oregon by attending Indian cultural events and celebrations. (For example, the Pi-Ume-Sha Treaty Days Powwow and the Root Feast and Rodeo on the Warm Springs Reservation, the All-Indian Rodeo in Tygh Valley, the Memorial Day Rodeo and Powwow in Klamath Falls, the All-Indian Rodeo and Barbecue in Chiloquin, the Wy-Am Salmon Feast at Celilo Village, the Indian-Style Salmon Bake at Depoe Bay, and Lelooska Foundation in Ariel, WA. View traditional fishing at Lone Pine, at Sherar's Bridge on the Deschutes River and at the John Day Dam.)
EXPLORE museums and exhibits that portray local histories of Indian tribes of Oregon. Keep a list of "I didn't know that!" statements about what's gleaned from the displays and artifacts.
REACT to this statement by Joel Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs:
"? they must be guarded from the pestiferous influence of degraded white men, and restrained by proper laws from violence and wrong among themselves. Let comfortable houses be erected for them, seeds and proper implements furnished, and instruction and encouragement given them in cultivation of the soil. Let schoolhouses be erected, and teachers employed to instruct their children; and let the missionaries of the Gospel of peace be encouraged to dwell among them." What cultural and economic values does this statement reflect? What effect do you think this philosophy had on the Native Americans living in Oregon?
Tribal Economy Activities and Management
DRAW before and after posters or develop models to show how the traditional fishery at Celilo Falls operated, and how the construction of the Dalles Dam changed the Columbia River and tribal life.
ROLE-PLAY a dialogue between yourself and another person, one of you taking the role of a person living in a city and the other taking the role of a person living on a reservation. Discuss the similarities and differences in your lives by considering typical activities, pace of life, amount of time spent outdoors, viewscape, common sounds, concerns and values, use of technology, and recreational opportunities. What would each of you miss if you were to exchange places with one another?
INVESTIGATE the role of tribal sovereignty and government in the management of a tribal gaming casino or other business enterprise.
RESEARCH the history of legal cases delineating tribal fishing rights in the Pacific Northwest.
RESEARCH the history of federal treaties with the tribes of Oregon. What have been the advantages and disadvantages of each, in terms of promoting the cultural and economic health of the tribes?
DEVELOP a decision tree laying out different alternatives for promoting economic development for a tribe in Oregon and the long- and short-term consequences of each.
"As Long As The Grass Grows": Tribal Economy Ecology
DISCUSS how policies related to timber, salmon, mining, clean water, and other natural resources intersect with the economic development efforts of tribes in Oregon.
INVETIGATE the recent Bonneville Power Administration funding of purchases of land by the Burns Paiute and Warm Springs Tribes for the purpose of enhancing habitat for wildlife and fish and to protect cultural sites. Do you agree that programs of this sort should be available to tribes to compensate them for wildlife losses resulting from the building of Columbia River dams?
DEVELOP a set of guidelines that you think tribes should follow to enhance habitat for fish and wildlife on their tribal lands.
EXPLAIN the spiritual and economic significance of salmon to Warm Springs tribal members. What do you think the condition of salmon in Oregon will be like in 50 years?
INVESTIGATE the relationship of Native Americans to forested areas. What do you think the condition of forests in Oregon will be like in 50 years?
VISIT one of the Indian reservations in Oregon. Prepare a slide report showing the habitats, plants, and animals of the area. What was the condition of this ecosystem 100 years ago? What is the current condition of this ecosystem? What protections are in place to ensure the health of this ecosystem?
Innovation and Change
SELECT an important problem facing Oregon today, for example high rural unemployment, the decline of salmon, or restoring water resources. Outline a plan for involving both state and tribal leaders in solving it. Send your plan to the appropriate government agency or your local newspaper.
WRITE a poem expressing your reaction to the recent apology of Kevin Gover, a Pawnee and head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, for the "legacy of racism and inhumanity" and 175 years of "ethnic cleansing that befell the Western tribes ? Poverty, ignorance and disease have been the product of this agency's work."
DEBATE the controversies that have arisen about teaching Chinook trade jargon to young tribal members.
FIND evidence in the video to support the statement that "rebuilding culture is not easy." What is the Grand Ronde tribe doing to rebuild their culture?
PREPARE a set of questions and use them to interview a tribal member about changes that have occurred in his/her life, work, and relationship to natural resources. Write an article about this person and submit it to a local magazine or newspaper.
CONSIDER the demographics of Oregon today. Develop and present a slide program that details what you think the future of tribal economies will be in Oregon as the state continues to move toward an economy that is less resource-based. Provide support for your position(s).
RESEARCH how technological changes (transportation, fax machines, the Internet, etc.) are affecting life in tribal communities.
The Savvy Citizen
SPECULATE about how you think changes in the economy, for example, a weakened stock market or rise in state population, might affect tribal casinos or other businesses such as resorts.
SURVEY students in your school and adults in your community about whether they think gambling is good for Oregon, including the state-run lottery and tribal casinos. Probe to find out what they think are the top three advantages and disadvantages of each.
WRITE a letter to the Board of Trustees of the Spirit Mountain Community Fund, which distributes 6% of net gambling revenues each year to charitable causes and organizations in Oregon, explaining where you believe the tribe should donate these funds and why.
REFLECT on the statement by Grand Ronde Tribal Chair Kathryn Harrison that the tribe today is carrying out their ancestors' "vision." Would you agree or not?
EXPLAIN your position on whether you think landless tribes should be granted the right to operate gambling casinos in urban areas.
RESEARCH the issues involved in the recent case of allowing the Makah Indians of Washington State the right to hunt whales. Where do you think the line should be drawn in allowing tribal members to freely practice their cultural beliefs and traditions?
The Klamath Tribe is asking Congress to give them back 690,000 acres of former reservation land that is now part of the Winema and Fremont national forests. They plan to cut timber on the land to fund their tribal government, as well as restore the ecosystem so that tribal members can pursue their traditional subsistence lifestyles. Write a letter to your congressperson explaining whether or not you support this proposal.
CONTRAST these statistics: In 1990 Native Americans as a whole had the highest levels of poverty and unemployment of any ethnic or social group in the U.S. In 1992, Indian-run gambling was worth $5.4 billion. What conclusions can you draw about the future of tribal economic development in the U.S. and in Oregon?