The Oregon Department of Transportation and the state’s cities and counties estimate they need an extra $5 billion a year to preserve Oregon’s roads and bridges, ease congestion, and bolster public transportation, according to a new analysis released by state lawmakers.

That eye-popping figure would be three and a half times what ODOT and all the state’s cities and counties, combined, spend on their transportation now: roughly $2 billion a year.

The analysis includes myriad ways to raise the money. Along with the usual suspects — higher gas taxes and vehicle registration fees and fees on studded tires — the list includes ideas that would be new for Oregon: toll roads, higher registration fees for electric vehicles, higher regional gas taxes and registration fees, excise taxes on bicycles, a per-mile road user fee, or even a carbon tax.

The list also contemplates whether transportation needs should be funded from the state’s general and lottery funds or through the state’s tax on alcohol, tobacco or marijuana. None of those sources are now used to pay for roads and bridges.

Read more at The Register-Guard.