This is a story of a man named York.
It is also the story of how history is recorded, remembered and imagined.




The Scholars:

Darrell Millner
Professor, Black Studies Department
Portland State University, Portland, OR

Thomas P. Slaughter
Andrew V. Tackes Professor of History
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN

James   J. Holmberg
Curator of Special Collections
The Filson Historical Society, Louisville, KY

James Ronda
H.G. Barnard Chair in Western American History
University of Tulsa, Tulsa OK

Ron Craig
Documentary Filmmaker and York educator Filmworks Northwest, Portland, OR

Kelly Madison
Associate Professor of Communication Studies,
California State University at Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA

Primary Sources:

The Lewis and Clark Journals: An American Epic of Discovery
Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, et al, Authors
Gary Moulton, Editor
University of Nebraska Press, 2003

Dear Brother; Letters of William Clark to Jonathan Clark
William Clark, Author
James J. Holmberg, Editor
Yale University Press, New Haven CT, 2002

The Western Journals of Washington Irving
Washington Irving, Author
John Francis McDermott, Editor
University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1944

Adventures of Zenas Leonard, Fur Trader
Zenas Leonard, Author
John C. Ewers, Editor
University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1959

Journals of the Expedition
Under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark
Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, et al, Authors
Nicholas Biddle, Editor
Heritage Press, New York 1962

The History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, Authors
Elliott Coues, Editor
Dover Publications, New York, 1965 (orig 1893)

Books/writings about York:

In Search of York: The Slave who went to the Pacific with Lewis and Clark
Robert Betts, Author
University Press of Colorado, Boulder, 2000

Exploring Lewis and Clark: Reflections on Men and Wilderness
Thomas P. Slaughter, Author
Alfred A, Knopt, New York, 2003

York of the Corps of Discovery
Oregon Historical Quarterly (Volume 104, No. 3, Fall 2003)
Darrell M. Millner, Author
Oregon Historical Society Press, Portland OR, 2003

A Notion about Freedom; the relationship of William Clark and York
Gateway Heritage (magazine)
James J. Holmberg, Author
Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis MO, Fall/Winter 2003/2004

Big Medison: York's Life During and After the Lewis and Clark Expedition
James   J. Holmberg, Author
(Speech at the "Confluence of Cultures" conference
University of Montana, May 28-30, 2003

Do them No Harm; Lewis and Clark Among the Nez Perce
Zoa L. Swayne, Author
Legacy House, Orofino ID, 1990


Contemporary works about York:

Buffalo Dance: The Journey of York
Frank X. Walker, Author
University Press of Kentucky, Lexington KY, 2004

York, The Voice of Freedom
A Music Drama
Bruce Trinkley and Jason Charnesky,
A production of the Penn State Opera Workshop
Penn State University, 2002

References to York as a "Sambo":

The Conquest: The True Story of Lewis and Clark   
Eva Emery Dye, Author
McClurg, Chicago, 1902

Forward the Nation
Donald Culross Peattie, Author
Editions for the Armed Services, New York, 1942

Two Captains West, An Historical Tour of the Lewis and Clark Trail
Albert P. Salisbur, Author
Superior Publishing Company, Seattle, 1950

Meriwether Lewis of Lewis and Clark
Charles Morrow Wilson, Author
Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, 1934

The Magnificent Adventure
Emerson Hough, Author
D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1916

Peaceful Conquest: Story of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Kelsie Osborne, Author
Beattie & Co, Portland OR, 1955

Brother to Dragons: A Tale in Verse and Voices
Robert Penn Warren, Author
Random House, New York, 1953

No Other White Men
Julia Davis, Author
E.P. Dutton & Co, New York, 1937

The Black Military Experience in the American West
John M. Carroll, Author
Liveright, New York, 1971

The Lewis and Clark Trail
Archie Satterfield, Author
Stackpole Books, Harrisburg PA, 1978

Star of the West
Ethel Hueston, Author
Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1935

References to York as a "Superhero"

York, the Slave Explorer
Negro Digest
K.D. Curtis, Author
Johnson Publishing Co, Chicago, May 1962

My Name Is York
Elizabeth Van Steenwyk, Author
Rising Moon/Northland Pub, Flagstaff AZ, 1997

Original Pioneers Predate Oregon Trail
The Oregonian (newspaper)
Dean Baker, Author
Oregonian Publishing Company, Portland OR, Sept 21, 1992

A Guide to Negro History in America
Phillip T. Drotning, Author
Doubleday, Garden City, New York, 1968

Books about the Minstrel Era

Blacking Up
Robert Toll, Author
Oxford University Press, New York, 1974

Inside the Minstrel Mask: Readings in Nineteenth-Century Blackface Minstrelsy Annemarie Bean, et al, Editor
University Press of New England, Hanover NH, 1996

Demons of Disorder
Dale Cockrel, Author
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York, 1997